RECLASSIFICATION OF THE UK ORCHID FLORA IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT PHYLOGENETIC, POPULATION GENETIC AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES.

 

This has been extracted  from a manuscript by Professor Richard Bateman currently in review for the Stace volume. It is possible that minor alterations will be made following review.

 

Cypripedioideae

                  1. Cypripedium L.

                           1.1 C. calceolus L. [Lady’s-slipper]

Epidendroideae

    Neottieae

                  2. Cephalanthera LCM Rich.

                           2.1 C. rubra (L.) LCM Rich. [Red Helleborine]

                           2.2 C. longifolia (L.) Fritsch [Narrow-leaved Helleborine]

                           2.3 C. damasonium (Miller) Druce [White Helleborine]

                  3. Neottia Guett. (incl. Listera R Br. ex WT Aiton)

                           3.1 N. (Listera) cordata (L.) LCM Rich. [Lesser Twayblade]

                           3.2 N. (Listera) ovata (L.) Bluff. & Fingerh. [Common Twayblade]

                           3.3 N. nidus-avis (L.) LCM Rich. [Bird’s-nest Orchid]

                  4. Epipactis Zinn.

                      palustris group

                           4.1 E. palustris (L.) Crantz [Marsh Helleborine]

                      helleborine group

                           4.2 E. atrorubens (Hoffm. ex Bernh.) Besser [Dark-red Helleborine]

                           4.3 E. helleborine (L.) Crantz [Broad-leaved Helleborine] {inc. E. youngiana    Richards & Porter}

                           4.4 E. purpurata Smith [Violet Helleborine]

                           4.5 E. leptochila (Godfery) Godfery [Narrow-lipped Helleborine]

                           4.6 E. dunensis (T & TA Steph.) Godfery [Dune Helleborine]

                           4.7 *E. sancta (P Delforge) P Delforge & A Gévaudan [Lindisfarne Helleborine]      {very localised}

                           4.8 E. phyllanthes GE Smith [Green-flowered Helleborine]

    ?Gastrodieae

                      Epipogium Gmelin ex Borkh.

                                 E. aphyllum Swarz [Ghost Orchid) {rarely seen in the British  Isles}

    Malaxideae

                  5. Liparis LCM Rich.

                           5.1 L. loeselii (L.) LCM Rich. [Fen Orchid] {inc. ovata}

                  6. Hammarbya Kuntze

                           6.1 H. paludosa (L.) Kuntze [Bog Orchid]

    Calypsoeae

                  7. Corallorhiza Ruppius ex Gagnebin

                           7.1 C. trifida Chatel. [Coralroot Orchid]

Orchidoideae

    Cranichideae

         Goodyerinae

                  8. Goodyera R Br.

                           8.1 G. repens (L.) R Br. [Creeping Lady’s-tresses]

         Spiranthinae

                  9. Spiranthes LC Rich.

                           9.1 S. romanzoffiana Cham. [Irish Lady’s-tresses]

                           9.2 S. spiralis (L.) Chevall. [Autumn Lady’s-tresses]

                                 *S. aestivalis (Poiret) LCM Rich. [Summer Lady’s-tresses] {extirpated in the British Isles}

    Orchideae

         Habenariinae

                  10. Herminium L.

                           10.1 H. monorchis (L.) R Br. [Musk Orchid]

         Orchidinae

             Orchis clade

                  11. Orchis L. s.s. (inc. Aceras R Br.)

                      militaris group

                           11.1 O. (Aceras) anthropophora (L.) All. [Man Orchid]

                           11.2 O. simia Lam. [Monkey Orchid]

                           11.3 O. militaris L. [Military Orchid]

                           11.4 O. purpurea Hudson [Lady Orchid]

                      mascula group

                           11.5 O. mascula (L.) L. [Early-purple Orchid]

             Platanthera clade

                  12. Pseudorchis Seguier

                           12.1 Ps. albida (L.) A & D Loeve [Small-white Orchid]

                  13. Platanthera LCM Rich.

                           13.1 P. bifolia (L.) LCM Rich. [Lesser Butterfly-orchid]

                           13.2 P. chlorantha (Custer) Reichb. p. [Greater Butterfly-orchid]

             Gymnadenia clade

                  14. Gymnadenia R Br. s.l. {inc. Nigritella LCM Rich.}

                           14.1 G. conopsea (L.) R Br. [Chalk Fragrant-orchid]

                           14.2 G. borealis (Druce) RM Bateman, Pridgeon & MW Chase [Heath Fragrant-orchid]

                           14.3 G. densiflora (Wahlenb.) Dietrich [Marsh Fragrant-orchid]

             Dactylorhiza clade

                  15. Dactylorhiza Necker ex Nevski s.l. {inc. Coeloglossum Hartm.}

                      incarnata group

                           15.1 D. incarnata (L.) Soó {inc. cruenta} [Early Marsh-orchid]

                      viridis group

                           15.2 D. (Coeloglossum) viridis (L.) RM Bateman, Pridgeon & MW Chase [Frog Orchid]

                      fuchsii group

                           15.3 D. fuchsii (Druce) Soó [Common Spotted-orchid]

                      maculata group

                           15.4 D. maculata (L.) Soó [Heath Spotted-orchid]

                      majalis s.l. group

                           15.5 D. praetermissa (Druce) Soó [Southern Marsh-orchid] {inc. junialis}

                           15.6 D. traunsteinerioides (Pugsley) Landwehr [Pugsley’s Marsh-orchid]

                               {inc. lapponica}

                           15.7 *D. ebudensis (Wiefelspuetz ex Bateman & Denholm)

                               P Delforge [Hebridean Marsh-orchid] {very localised}

                           15.8 D. purpurella (T & TA Steph.) Soó [Northern Marsh-orchid] {inc. cambrensis =  majaliformis}

                           15.9 D. occidentalis (Pugsley) P Delforge [Irish Marsh-orchid] {inc. kerryensis}

             Neotinea clade

                  16. Neotinea Reichb. f. s.l.

                      maculata group

                           16.1 N. maculata (Desf.) Stearn [Dense-flowered Orchid] {Eire only}

                      ustulata group

                           16.2 N. (Orchis) ustulata (L.) RM Bateman, Pridgeon & MW Chase [Burnt Orchid]      {inc. aestivalis}

             Himantoglossum clade

                  17. Himantoglossum Koch s.l.

                           17.1 H. hircinum (L.) Sprengel [Lizard Orchid]

             Anacamptis clade

                  18. Anacamptis LCM Rich. s.l.

                      laxiflora group

                                   *A. (Orchis) laxiflora (Lam.) RM Bateman, Pridgeon & MW Chase [Loose-flowered Orchid] {Channel Isles only}

                      pyramidalis group

                           18.1 A. pyramidalis (L.) LCM Rich. [Pyramidal Orchid]

                      morio group

                           18.2 A. (Orchis) morio (L.) RM Bateman, Pridgeon & MW Chase [Green-winged Orchid]

             Serapias clade

                  19. Serapias L.

                           19.1 S. parviflora Parlatore [Lesser Tongue-orchid] {questionably native}

                                   *S. lingua L. [Greater Tongue-orchid] {Channel Isles only}

             Ophrys clade

                  20. Ophrys L.

                      insectifera group

                           20.1 O. insectifera L. [Fly Orchid]

                      apifera group

                           20.2 O. apifera Hudson [Bee Orchid]

                      fuciflora–sphegodes group

                           20.3 O. fuciflora (Crantz) Moench s.s. [Late Spider-orchid]

                           20.4 O. sphegodes Miller s.s. [Early Spider-orchid]

 

Total = 20 genera (including Serapias but excluding Epipogium); 50 unequivocal species + 2 prospecies + 2 extirpated species + 2 species found only in the Channel Isles

 

Note that several of the species have recently been, or are, the subject of nomenclatural debates focused on the rules of priority (e.g. Epipactis purpurata, Pseudorchis albida, Platanthera chlorantha, Gymnadenia densiflora, Dactylorhiza viridis (also the Continental D. majalis), Neotinea maculata, Ophrys fuciflora).

 

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